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IMPORTANT NOTE.  click here for NEW PHYTOSANITARY Certificate news, EXDOC.
IMPORTANT  NOTE  click here for USA  importers. Phytos & Permits.

                        We wish you all the best for a safe and happy Christmas and New Year.

In FLASK.  Acinetia superba, Dendrobium palpaebrae, Dendrobium farmerii albiflorum, Dendrobium farmerii pink, Peristeria elata.
In PLANTS.  Dendrobium vandoides, Angraecum sesquipedale varigata x self, Oncidium spacelatum.
Ready to replate.     Acinetia chrysantha, Cattleya harrisoneae, Cattleya walkeriana, Laelia gouldiana, Phalaenopsis sanderiana.
Culture.   Conservation by  Flask .
Did you know?   Important New Phyto news, electronic generated Phytosanitary Certificates. Worldwide exchange of seed and protocorm. Permits USA.  Bank Fees, hidden costs.
Web Site.  New Links plus more photographs up.
Your Message on the net. Put your message IN FRONT of  the international readers of this Newsletter each month or on YOUR PAGE on the net.
Orchid Auction. Plants, Flasks, Books.
Flasking supplies, medias, nonabsorb cotton wool. Notes on flasking.
Seed for saleEmail  now for a list of available species orchid seed.
Spare Flasks on hand.  Some species flask  that can be shipped NOW.
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Requests. Click here for  Flask List   Plant List  New Germinations  Spare flasks.
It is our policy to avoid spam, so lists are sent on request.
Photos in this issue. Above Cattleya harrisoneae. Highlighted species are links to photos/articles, sterile Tube for replate, Patricia and flasks..

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New in Flask.
Acinetia superba. A species from Ecuador, Colombia. Showy waxy 5cm flowers, pink heavily spotted purple, almost black. Fragrant. Best grown in a basket in a media that will stay damp, but not wet, intermediate, shady.
Dend palpaebrae. An evergreen species similar to Dend farmerii and the like. Flowers are white flushed pink, the lip yellow.   See Dend farmerii link for growing conditions.
Dendrobium farmerii albiflorum . The white, yellow lip form from Thailand.
Dendrobium farmerii pink . The pink flushed form from India
Peristeria elata . Panama Dove Orchid. This species  from Panama and other Central American countries, is one of about 6 in the genus. They are not all terrestrials like P. elata, a couple being epiphytes.
     Peristeria elata grows best in a media similar to that used for Phaius, a good rich leaf-mould and well drained coarse sandy soil, well crocked.  Seasonal in growth, it rests during our cooler dry winter and in  spring starts new growth. At that time copious water and fertiliser will  produce tall spikes for Christmas, of waxy, fragrant white flowers. ( For a full article on Peristeria, visit November Newsletter. )
New in Plants.
 Dendrobium vandoides. A  New Guinea leafy stemmed species with unusual large white flowers. It grows best in a pot in a media that will stay damp but not wet. A native of the warm wet tropics, it likes lots of water while growing, which seems to be most of the time. 5cm pot seedlings
Angraecum sesquipedale varigata x self. This is a selfing of a plant that had a white stripe in the leaf. A Madagascan species, it likes a basket or ventilated pot in an open media that drains well. The flowers are large, wax like, with a long spur, and highly fragrant. Warm to intermediate grower, will take a fair amount of sunlight. sesquipedale, literally a foot and a half, in reference to the long spur. 5 cm pot seedlings
Oncidium spacelatum. This is a large clumping species from Central America. Our plants are from seed collected in Mexico and have been previously listed as Oncidium species Mexico.
Best grown in a large basket, maximum air movement and will take very strong sunlight. A warm to intermediate grower with a branched spike to six feet or more, with hundreds of flowers. Near flowering size plants are doing well in  slotted pots in  spaghnam mix.
Ready to Replate.
Acinetia chrysantha, The Acinetias tend to be cooler growers from the cloud forests of Central America. Acinetia chrysantha comes from Costa Rica and grows best in a small basket much the same as Stanhopeas. The media should be rich, well drained but retaining enough moisture so that the roots do not dry out. Flowers are born on a long pendulous spike, each flower up to  5cm in diameter, yellow with fine red spots and red spotting on the labellum. A shady  well ventilated spot is needed to protect the soft foliage.
Cattleya harrisoneaePhoto at top. A warm to intermediate growing Brazilian bifoliate Cattleya. This species can grow to be a large robust plant requiring a large well drained pot or basket, good ventilation and sunlight.  The media should be open, apply adequate water and fertiliser when growing, and cut water when the plant rests after flowering. Cattleya harrisoneae flowers will reach up to 10 cm across, and the larger the plant, the more flowers will be produced per spike.
Cattleya walkeriana.  With waxy flat rose purple, 13cm flowers, heavy textured, Cattleya walkeriana is best grown on a slab of treefern with extra water and fertiliser. The species will also grow well in a pot or basket, where it will spread out into a specimen. After flowering the plant should be rested. Maximun sunlight and ventilation is required to maximise flowering. Warm to intermediate Brazilian species.
Laelia gouldiana is a Mexican species, best grown in a small pot or basket much the same way as a cattleya. It is a cool to intermediate grower, with tall spikes of rose coloured large flowers.
Macodes lowii  is a very showy, large growing Jewel orchid from Borneo. The leaf is veined and reticulated metalic pink on a dark green black background. It is an ideal windowsill subject in a terranium, grown in a mixture of coarse sand and leafmould or similar media that will  stay damp but not wet. It rests in the cooler months and grows in the shade.
Phalaenopsis sanderiana. A large leafed species with dark green black leaves, dark purple underneath. The plant grows much the same as P stuartiana and the like, and produces a spike of large pink flowers, the pink sometimes veining. A warm grower from the Philippines, typical Phalaenopsis culture.
 Species highlighted are links to photos.
More photos at
Culture.  Conservation.
           In the nursery, orchid seed is sown from either dry seed or green seed pod. The seed is sown in a wide mouth bottle on its side, which makes for easier seedling handling when replating.
      Once germinated and grown on the nutrient  gel media to about 6 mm high (quarter inch), the seedlings are transferred to fresh media bottles. In effect, the seedlings are being thinned out and put into new bottles to grow larger.
      Some species develop quickly, while others are slow and require this replate thinning out into fresh bottles again. In some cases, particularly Cattleya, Laelia, and their allies , this procedure can be repeated several times to get the seedlings to a large size ready for the final replate.
      Before seedlings get too large, the seedling/protocorm material can be replated into small unbreakable polycarbonate tubes, also onto nutrient gel. The tubed seedling material will then grow and pack tight inside the tube, ideal for airmail post world wide.
     These tubes, on receipt, are then replated into a large jar or flask for growing on to a stage where they can be deflasked. The advantage of this procedure is the quicker production and the ease in which tubes, only weighing 40 grams each, (  about one and a half  ounce), can be airmailed cheaply, and that more seedling material can be put into each tube.
     Once seedling in the mother flasks have reached a good size, small glass flasks  are prepared to order, each containing usually 12 to 14 seedlings. These flasks are then grown on until the seedlings fill the flask, which helps prevent shake up in the shipping.
    At this stage, larger seedlings are used for the final flask and smaller seedlings are replated into fresh mother flasks to await the next order. The advantage of this is the storing of live plant material in flask that could be best described as a "protocorm Bank."
    When the seedling in the flask have grown and packed tight inside the flask, the flasks are ready to ship. Airmail Post or Air Courier Express transports flasks world wide, from one flask to 60. Preference is given to Air Courier service where parcels are carried and not placed in a mailbag.
     When flasks arrive, they need some time to acclimatise. Seedlings can be left in the flask for a considerable time, so it is best to leave seedlings to continue growing to a size where you feel confident about deflasking. There is seldom any need to deflask immediately. Even if seedlings are shaken  up, they can usually be persuaded to reposition on the gel media and continue to grow. ( Gently tap the flask so that seedlings sit on the media).
     For those growers with access to replating facilities,  a transfer to a large jar will produce even larger seedlings.
     For details on deflasks go to   Deflask .   Photos, Tube of protocorm, seedling material ready to airmail. Patricia with flasks for shipping.
Orchids from flask; The best conservation.
If more species are cultivated like this, then the wild populations of the species can be conserved.
 More photos at
Did you know ?
From the end of 2002, Australian Quarantine Inspection Service switches to an electronic generation of Phytosanitary Certificates. This new system is called  EXDOC, and Phytosanitary Certificates are printed on security paper at the point of export.
We suggest that importers ask their local  Inspection Office if they are aware of this new system and that Certificates  will appear different to the previous forms.
No problems are anticipated as we are assured all countries accept EXDOC, but it comes down to the person at the final inspection, we trust they also know!
Most countries accept the international standard Phytosanitary Certificate for the importation of plants and flasks where required. Some countries require additional declarations and these are detailed on that countries Import Permits.
Australian  Phytosanitary Certificates will only list additional declarations if an Import Permit is supplied with the requirements detailed on the Permit.
Countries now requiring a Phytosanitary Certificate  ( standard ) include USA, Canada ( flasks), Israel, Vanuatu, New Zealand, Japan and Sweden.
Countries that require additional declarations include Reunion, Tahiti, Canada ( plants only), so an Import Permit must be supplied.
For details on other countries email click here    and lists will be emailed to you.
Do you set seed pods on your treasured species orchids? The best conservation, sow seed, you will then know where to find them again.
IMPORTANT  NOTE  for USA  importers.
USDA has, from January 2002, begun to enforce the requirement for a Phytosanitary Certificate for all plant and plant material imports. This is not a new regulation, but the implementation of a rule that has previously not been enforced.
ALL FLASKS  imported into USA will now require a Phytosanitary Certificate.
Burleigh Park does provide this Phytosanitary Certificate at cost.
Flasks are still  CITES  exempt.
Click here    for the full details previously published.
Phytosanitary Certificate requirements for all countries.
We are preparing a data base for the import requirements for Phytosanitary Certificates for as many countries as possible.
If you have permits or other information, please contact us so that we can include as many countries as possible. A snailmail photocopy would be ideal.
The data base will list the various requirements to import flasks and orchid plants into each country and any special requirements pertaining to Phytosanitary Certificates.
We all dislike red tape, but the Certificates and Permits  mean disease and pest free imports and quicker delivery to you. We recommend that importers obtain all required permits for their country, in the long run this saves a lot of trouble and redtape, to say nothing of wear and tear on yourself and the orchids/flasks being imported.
Do you set seed pods on your treasured species orchids? The best conservation, sow seed.
Bank Transfers by EFT.
It has come to our attention that some Banks when they Electronic Funds Transfer may put the transfer thru an intermediary Bank. The originating Bank will charge you their Fee, but the intermediary Bank also then deducts another Fee.
Customers should ask their Bank about ALL Fees, as the customer has paid for a service, which is then charged for again. Surely it is the originating Banks responsibility, and cost, to complete the transaction that has been paid for by the customer.
Web site.
More Photographs Up
Check out our  web page
  Year 2000  winner of  "Linda the Orchid Lady" award .
EMAIL address     Your Message on the net.
If you would like to have your message sent to over 1200 ORCHID GROWERS each month via this Newsletter, contact can also be arranged. With in excess of 4000 visits to the website per MONTH, you can get your message to active INTERNATIONAL orchid growers 7/24. MESSAGE PAGE
Have a look at this busy Orchid Auction site.
Sell those spare plants ! Find that elusive rare plant or book !
Orchid Auction Site
Flask supplies.
Flasking medias; click on here and go to Supplies page
For working Nursery Medias for Mother and Replate Flasks.
A special note on flasking orchids.
Due to the need for a filtered air vent on flasks to allow exchange of gasses, a reliable air filter medium is needed.
Non absorbant cotton wool allows gas exchange but does not absorb moisture. Thus the air filter will stay dry and prevent the growth of fungus thru the filter, a common problem with ordinary cotton wool which gets wet, goes mouldy and allows the mould to grow thru the filter to contaminate the flask.
Non Absorbant Cottonwool  NOW AVAILABLE in 375 gram rolls,
click contact us NOW.
Seed of SPECIES orchids.
Email Cal for the latest list of seed available in packets enough to prepare 3 to 4 flasks.
Coryanthes, Dendrobium, Paphiopedilum, Oncidium, Cattleya, Aerides, Aussie natives, with more added as harvested.
All seed dated at collection, airmail post world wide and there is no restriction on orchid seed.
Cal's Orchids Australia.
Spare Flasks on hand.
There are sometimes spare flasks available. These are ready to ship, but we do not recommend shipping these flasks in your winter as they are ready to deflask now.
For a list of available flasks, email 
or  Click  here.
  A man rang his son and said,"Your mother and I are getting divorced". Son; " Hold everything Dad, I'll catch a plane and get there as soon as I can, dont do anything."
The man then rang his daughter with the same message, and got the same respone, she is on her way.
 He turned to his wife and said  "That solves that, both kids will be home for Christmas."

     Laws of  the Universe.
Don't be irreplaceable. If you can't be replaced, you can't be promoted.
Always remember you're unique. Just like everyone else.
Before you criticize someone, you should walk a mile in their shoes.
That way, when you criticize them, you're a mile away and you have their shoes.

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Ian and Pat Walters, Burleigh Park Orchid Nursery
54 Hammond Way, Thuringowa, Australia 4815
Email us at
Phone Fax 0747 740 008
International 61 747 740 008